Dr Andrzej Grzywacz

zdjecie Dr Andrzeja GrzywaczaPhone: (56) 611-26-49

E-mail: grzywacz[at]umk.pl

Office: 282

Research Interests

Potential applications of Diptera in post-mortem interval (PMI) calculations are among my research interests, however the main topic of my research work now is a comparative study of the morphology of immature stages of Diptera, mainly Muscidae and Fanniidae. I have started also research projects on DNA barcoding and temperature dependent development of forensically important species. Work on the morphology of immature stages of carrion breeding species provided me with substantial experience of work with laboratory breeding of various species of flies and studying their detailed larval morphology, with a combination of light and scanning electron microscopy methods. Currently I study morphological adaptations of larval stages to their natural habitats. I am also interested in phylogeny, especially of Calyptratae, and the potential use of of larval and adults morphology together with molecular methods.


  1. Szpila, K., Grzywacz A. 2019. Larvae of the North American Calyptratae flies of forensic importance. [W:] Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations, Jason H. Byrd, Jeffery K. Tomberlin (eds), Third edition, Chapter 27, Publisher: CRC Press.
  2. Adamska, K., Grzywacz, A. 2019. A new record of Euryomma peregrinum (Meigen, 1826) (Diptera: Fanniidae) from the Afrotropical Region. Dipteron 35: 132-139.
  3. Grzywacz, A. 2019. Thermal requirements for the development of immature stages of Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Fanniidae). Forensic Science International 297, 16-26
  4. Giordani, G., Grzywacz, A., Vanin, S. 2019. Characterization and identification of puparia of Hydrotaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Muscidae) from forensic and archaeological contexts. Journal of Medical Entomology 56(1), 45-54
  5. Grzywacz, A., Jarmusz, M., Szpila, K. 2018. New and noteworthy records of carrion-visiting Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Fanniidae) of Poland. Entomologica Fennica, 29(4), 169-174 pdf
  6. Grzywacz A., Wyborska D., Piwczyński M. 2017. DNA barcoding allows identification of European Fanniidae (Diptera) of forensic interest. Forensic Science International, 278: 106-114 pdf
  7. Grzywacz A., Wallman J. F., Piwczyński M. 2017. To be or not to be a valid genus: the systematic position of Ophyra R.-D. revised (Diptera: Muscidae). Systematic Entomology. 42: 714-723
  8. Grzywacz A., Ogiela J., Tofilski A. 2017. Identification of Muscidae (Diptera) of medico-legal importance by means of wing measurements. Parasitology Research, 116: 1495-1504. pdf
  9. Grzywacz A., Hall M.J.R., Pape T., Szpila K. 2017. Muscidae (Diptera) of forensic importance – an identification key to third instar larvae of the western Palaearctic region and a catalogue of the muscid carrion community. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 131: 855-866. pdf
  10. Grzywacz A. 2016. Four species of Azeliini (Diptera: Muscidae) not reported from the Polish fauna so far. Dipteron, 32: 27-31. pdf
  11. Piwczyński M., Pabijan M., Grzywacz A., Glinkowski W., Bereś P. K., Buszko J. 2016. High regional genetic diversity and lack of host-specificity in Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) as revealed by mtDNA variation. Bulletin of Entomological Research 106: 512–521.
  12. Grzywacz A., Amendt J., Fremdt H. 2016. Seek, and ye shall find – the example of Neohydrotaea lundbecki(Michelsen) (Diptera: Muscidae), a rare muscid species or just ignored so far in forensic entomology? North-Western Journal of Zoology 12:196–198.
  13. Grzywacz A., Wyborska D., Bystrowski C. 2015. New data on the distribution of Polietes Rondani, 1866 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Poland. Dipteron 31: 21–25.
  14. Mądra A., Frątczak K., Grzywacz A., Matuszewski S. 2015. Long-term study of pig carrion entomofauna. Forensic Science International 252: 1–10.
  15. Grzywacz A., Hall M. J. R. , Pape T. 2015. Morphology successfully separates third instar larvae of Muscina. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 29: 314–329.
  16. Matuszewski S., Frątczak K., Konwerski S., Bajerlein D., Szpila K., Jarmusz M., Szafałowicz M., Grzywacz A., Mądra A. 2016. Effect of body mass and clothing on carrion entomofauna. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 130: 221-232. pdf
  17. Grzywacz A., Jankowski A. 2014. The report of Hydrophoria ruralis (MEIGEN, 1826) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) in Poland. Dipteron 30: 19–23.
  18. Grzywacz A., Góral T., Szpila K., Hall M.J.R. 2014. Confocal laser scanning microscopy as a valuable tool in Diptera larval morphology studies. Parasitology Research 113: 4297–4302. pdf
  19. Matuszewski S., Szafałowicz M., Grzywacz A. 2014. Temperature-dependent appearance of forensically useful flies on carcasses. International Journal of Legal Medicine 128: 1013–1020. pdf
  20. Piwczyński M., Szpila K., Grzywacz A., Pape T. 2014. A large-scale molecular phylogeny of flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Systematic Entomology 39:783–799.
  21. Grzywacz A., Lindström A., Hall M.J.R. 2014. Hydrotaea similis Meade (Diptera: Muscidae) newly reported from a human cadaver: A case report and larval morphology. Forensic Science International 242: e34-e43.
  22. Grzywacz A., Pape T. 2014. Larval morphology of Atherigona orientalis (Schiner) (Diptera: Muscidae) – A species of sanitary and forensic importance. Acta Tropica, 137: 174–184.
  23. Grzywacz A., Khoobdel M., Akbarzadeh K. 2014. First Palaearctic record of the bird parasite Passeromyia heterochaeta (Villenueve, 1915) (Diptera: Muscidae) from the Iranian Persian Gulf islands. Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 8: 224–227. pdf
  24. Grzywacz A. 2013. Third instar larva morphology of Hydrotaea cyrtoneurina (Zetterstedt, 1845) (Diptera: Muscidae) – a species of forensic interest. Polish Journal of Entomology 82: 303–315. pdf
  25. Szpila K., Hall M.J.R., Pape T., Grzywacz A. 2013. Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Part II. Luciliinae. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 27: 349-366.
  26. Grzywacz A., T. Pape, W. Hudson, S. Gomez. 2013. Morphology of immature stages of Atherigona reversura (Diptera: Muscidae), with notes on the recent invasion of North America. Journal of Natural History 47: 1055–1067.
  27. Velasquez Y., T. Ivorra, A. Grzywacz, A. Martinez-Sanchez, C. Magana, A. Garcia-Rojo, S. Rojo. 2013. Larval morphology, development and forensic importance of Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae) in Europe: a rare species or just overlooked? Bulletin of Entomological Research, 103: 98–110.
  28. Grzywacz A. 2012. Helina deleta (Stein, 1914) (Diptera: Muscidae) a species newly recorded from Poland. Dipteron 28: 13–16 pdf.
  29. Grzywacz A., C. Prado e Castro. 2012. New records of Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Fanniidae) collected on pig carrion in Portugal with additional data on the distribution of F. conspecta Rudzinski, 2003. Entomologica Fennica 23: 169–176 pdf.
  30. Grzywacz A., K. Szpila, T. Pape. 2012. Egg morphology of nine species of Pollenia Robieneau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Microscopy Research and Technique 75: 955–967 pdf.
  31. Grzywacz A., T. Pape, K. Szpila. 2012. Larval morphology of the lesser housefly, Fannia canicularis. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 26: 70-82 pdf.
  32. Grzywacz A., T. Pape. 2010. Egg morphology of Mydaea lateritia (Rondani, 1866) (Diptera: Muscidae). Entomologica Fennica 21: 187-192 pdf.
  33. Bystrowski C., A. Grzywacz. 2010. Phorbia haberlandti (Schiner, 1865) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) new to Polish fauna Anthomyiid fly species. Wiadomości entomologiczne 29: 117-121 pdf.
  34. Bystrowski C., A. Grzywacz. 2009. The occurrence of parasitic fly Angioneura cyrtoneurina (Zetterstedt, 1859) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Poland. Wiadomości entomologiczne 28: 271-274 pdf.
  35. Grzywacz A. 2009. Graphomya minor Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Muscidae) a new species to the Polish fauna. Dipteron 25: 14-19 pdf.
  36. Grzywacz A. 2007. Macronychia dolini (Verves & Khrokalo 2006) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) – a new species to the Polish fauna. Dipteron 23: 18-20 pdf.